Physically Based Rendering: From Theory To Implementation free to read online
In 2014 Matt Pharr, Greg Humphreys, and Pat Hanrahan won an Academy Award for Scientific and Technical Achievement for the first and second editions of their book Physically Based Rendering: From Theory To Implementation.
According to the authors, the book “describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method known as “literate programming” combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The ideas and software in this book show the reader how to design and employ a full-featured rendering system capable of creating stunning imagery.”
The third edition of this book is now available to read in its entirety free on pbr-book.org.